What do we do?

We aim to enable, through  scientific tools, critical awareness on commercial advertising and political discourse in Italy and in other countries. We do this by highlighting questionable, exaggerate and false contents conveyed implicitly. We also assign a ‘rating’ to politicians’ speeches, corresponding to their level of cheating on addressees by means of implicit doubtful content.

We make explicit those contents that are presented implicitly in order to bypass the addressees’ awareness of their being false. Scores are assigned to texts according to a standardized and repeatable counting system: they depend on how politicians linguistically ‘package’ the content. 

The team is apolitical and has no purposes other than those expressed here, and none of the group members actively participate in activities related to a political party. 
The texts to be analyzed are chosen with an attempt to alternate between political parties. Any imbalances may result from scientific opportunities or particular current circumstances. 

How do we do it?

Implicit communication and its measurement

There are things we wouldn’t let ourselves be told without rebelling. For example, if someone were to say to us, ‘Whoever drinks this whiskey is young, handsome, rich, and happy!’ not only would we not believe it…

Political propaganda employs the same tactics as advertising, to divert critical attention from the most questionable content one seeks to persuade us of…

Since the measurement method we adopt is a rather complex process, its explanation on this page cannot be brief.


Implicature is a content that is not explicitly stated but is hinted at. Because it is implied by the recipients themselves, they are less aware that it has been transmitted to them.


Presupposition is a content presented as if the recipients were already aware of it: this way, they are less prompted to question it.


A vague expression is compatible with many different specific contents, making it difficult to discern when it is false or exaggerated.


A Topic, for linguists, is information presented as if it is already being discussed, thus as if it is already sufficiently accepted in the discourse.

Communicative functions: Attack, Defense or Opinion?

Every implicit content serves to achieve a certain objective in communication: that is, it is endowed with a communicative function. For example: Self-praise, Praise of others, Attack, Defense, and Personal opinion.

Content implicitness and responsibility implicitness

The source can leave implicit a part of the content, or the fact that it is they who are informing the recipient.